Era of Interconnection and communication between everyday objects: Internet of Things (IoT)
The explosive growth of Internet of Things (IoT) in recent years has developed a new network ecosystem. The core of the concept of IoT is to collect data through the sensor from various types of devices that are not supposed to communicate with each other, and then transmit the data to the data center through the network for analysis and integration before sharing the results of data resources to other IoT devices on the same network. As shown in Figure 1, the concept of IoT can be extended to everyday applications including consumer, commercial, industrial, and infrastructure space. IoT is almost everywhere. 
Figure 1. Concept of IoT
The architecture of the IoT system may vary depending on the application of each device, which can be basically classified into three tiers: Device, Edge Gateway and Cloud, as shown in Figure 2. The physical device (Device tier) provides the raw data to be interpreted to the Edge Gateway tier through a communication interface (wired or wireless) for data collection, aggregation or pre-processing prior to sending the data to the Cloud tier for analysis and management .
Figure 2. IoT Architecture
IoT is growing faster and faster since IoT was first brought up on 1985. The FinancesOnline indicated that the numbers of device connected to IoT will grow from 15.41 billion on 2015 to 75.44 billion on 2025, which sVhowed that IoT is inseparable from our daily life.
Industry IoT Trends
The application of Industry IoT is mainly for manufacturing and transportation. The related organization of Industry IoT evaluated that there will be 949.42 billion market scope until 2025. As Table 1 below we could find out the different application of Industry IoT. Although Industry IoT is mainly for manufacturing, it also has been applied on public utilities and energy related application since early period.
◎ Predictive and remote maintenance.
◎ Industrial security systems .
◎ Industrial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning .
◎ Manufacturing equipment monitoring.
|Agriculture||◎ Agriculture Automation|
◎ Smart farming and livestock monitoring.
|Energy & Power||
◎ Smart metering and smart grid.|
◎ Smart environment solutions.
◎ Smart city applications.
◎ Energy consumption optimization.
|Healthcare||◎ Healthcare Machinery.|
|Oil & Gas||
◎ Ozone, gas and temperature monitoring in industrial environments.|
|Retail ||◎ Asset tracking and smart logistics.
◎ Asset performance management.
|Logistics & Transport
◎ Freight, goods and transportation monitoring.
When it comes to Public utilities, we could measure the consumption of electricity, water, gas or heat, and then provide these data to user and related government institution by AMI structure. AMI system would periodically collect and analyze the condition of different energy. AMI system is the structure which could achieve two-way communication between itself and smart meter. Smart meter is applied at public utilities and house terminal device. Figure 2 below shows the process of how data transports. The data could be transported via cable which is mainly RS485/RS232/PLC, or wireless transportation as LPWAN.
The communication interfaces with cable are mostly like RS485, RS232 and PLC. These interface would have cost issue according to the cost of cable and maintenance. However, they could achieve higher rate of success of communication compare to wireless interface. When it comes to wireless communication, LPWAN is the main interface to provide long distance, low transmission speed, low power consumption and support numerous device, which helps us to achieve M2M application.
Figure 3. Data Acquire System
Smarter, and More Complicated
Smart electronic product makes our life more convenient. We also start to notice that smarter electronic product has more complicated EMI issue, smart meter is a practical example without a doubt. Many countries are applying new conception for energy, by making AMI and smart meter more efficient, they could control the consumption of energy more efficiently. We keep observing the using situation of smart grid. Thus, we can save the cost of human resource to check the meter directly. Moreover, we can also let consumer to choose the period they want to use electricity to meet lower price. These additional applications have to meet EMI standard of meter to prevent potential interference during communication.
All smart meters have to meet ANSI C 12.1 or UL2375 standard, which do not conflict with each other. UL2375 standard contains some content among ANSI C 12.1, it is usually been followed by government institution. This standard contains Radio frequency conducted and radiated emission (Test No.27: ANSI C63.4), EFT (Electrical fast transient/burst - Test No. 25: IEC 61000-4-4) and Electrostatic discharge - Test No.28: IEC 61000-4-2.
Smart meter is always set up outdoor or severe working environment. There is often interference among these environment to influence smart meter’s function. There are 3 reasons which make function of smart meter abnormal frequently: Radiated Emission, Radiated Susceptibility and Electrostatic discharge (ESD). As ESD protection conception, we can reserve layout pad for ESD protection device for the flexibility of circuit design. Consequently, it is significant for product engineer to consider choosing ESD protection device at sensitive signal line, high speed signal line or power line, which helps us pass EMC standard and ensure that communication module connected to IoT would not been interfered during normal application.
AMC CAN HELP
AMC (Amazing Microelectronic Corp.) is leading among ESD protection device provider, whose ESD protection device has low clamping voltage, low capacitance, high surge robustness and array package. Low clamping voltage can ensure the function of the protected circuit is still normal during ESD transient. Low capacitance can ensure the signal of high speed interface is still complete after adding ESD protection device into circuit. Because smart meter is always installed outdoor, higher surge robustness leads to higher reliability. TVS array application could save space of PCB board and cost at the same time. ESD protection device of AMC can not only enhance reliability of smart meter, but also make Meter Vendor control cost.
The most seen smart meter can support open-close power, which makes itself more efficient. However, it often leads to EMI issue according to circuit design. Power EMI Filter is for 3.3V power whose cut-off frequency is between 35MHz to 3.5GHz. With popular package, product engineer can directly change from capacitor without changing circuit design.
For wire communication, AMC also provides RS232/RS485/CAN transceiver. Not only RS232/RS485/CAN transceiver’s function themselves, AMC also enhance the Electrostatic discharge (IEC 61000-4-2)、Electrical fast transient/burst (IEC 61000-4-4) and Surge (IEC 61000-4-5) robustness ability at I/O line. Table 2 below shows ESD protection application which could be chosen during AMI system and IoT application. This table also responses to IoT communication module and smart meter application.
|Solution||Wireless Module||Smart Meter||Note|
|Dedicated I/F||TVS||V||◎UART / USB Signal / SIM Card|
◎Battery voltage protection
◎ESD, EFT or surge protect level
|EMI Issue||Power EMI Filter||V||V||◎Band-Stop: 35MHz to 3.5GHz for 3.3V|
|Wire Interface||RS232 XCVR||V||◎3.3V ~ 5V I/O tolerance
||RS485 XCVR||V||◎Support 3.3V & 5V Voltage
◎High Surge Type
||CAN XCVRN1||V||◎3.3V ~ 5V I/O tolerance
◎CANH/L high fault voltage protection
|General using||TVS||V||V||GPIO & Power Rail
◎ Low working leakage current
◎ Variety package
|N1: XCVR is transceiver|
IoT connects people, M2M system and information resource. We can evaluate that there will be more application which contains larger range. And we know that smarter electronic product has more complicated EMC issue. How to ensure our product is with EMC reliability is as important as time-to-market. If product engineer can evaluate to simulate or plan to choose ESD protection device, they can reduce the cost during period of EMC test. Moreover, the product for IoT cannot just meet standard but to make sure the function goes well during normal application. AMC will also keep providing our help for IoT application field.
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